The nature and meaning of sport

first_imgSport is about a range of specific activities which involves competition and requires physical conditioning and skills. A good way to define it would be to say, “It is a structured physical activity, usually competitive, that requires complex skills and a high level of individual commitment and motivation”. Let’s look at what this mean: · Structured physical activity-structured means it is organised. All sports have governing bodies that set rules and arrange events. It also requires physical preparation to some extent. · Competitive-all sport have a competitive element, either between individual and team. · Requires complex skills-skills have to be learned for an individual to become a performer. Basic skills have to be learned first, which are later developed into more complex skills. · High level of individual commitment and motivation – top athletes get to where they are by training for long hours for many years and often have to make sacrifices. This of course leads to rewards, such as winning, a sense of achievement, prize money or wages, which make all the hard work worthwhile. Throughout history, sport has played a variety of important function in society: as a form of recreation, as a preparation for war or the hunt; or later as a substitute for war. Some sports such as wrestling, date back thousands of years, others have arisen and being adapted from other activities. Today there are hundreds of different sports and the job of defining what a sport becomes very difficult. However, a number of characteristics that are shared by all sports can be identified. Common Features of Sport Most of the world’s sports contain the following features: · Competition between individual or team · Physical activity · Winners and losers ( in some sports you can have a draw) · Rules to ensure fair competition · A special place to play ( e.g., a pitch, court, or ring) · Special equipment There have been many attempts to divide sport into groups. Let’s examine a few: · Game – in this group of sports, you win by out-thinking your opponents, dominating territory, and scoring in some way,( coincidence, anticipation, avoidance),e.g. Soccer, Hockey, Badminton etc. · Gymnastic – in this group of sports, you win by producing movements which are performed as perfectly as possible when compared to a pre-set standard (movement replication), which are marked by judges, e.g. gymnastics, trampolining, etc. · Athletic – in this group of sport you win by producing more power than your opponents (power optimisation), e.g. running, jumping, weightlifting, etc. Specific sports in each of the three types can be analysed by investigating their: · Structure ( rules and organisation) · Strategies ( plans made to win) · Techniques · Physical demands of the sport (fitness, energy systems, etc.) · Psychological demands of the sport (skill, anxiety control, goal setting etc.) Sport can provide the basis for a lifelong participation in regular exercise, and the development of mental and moral qualities, including team spirit, sportsmanship, self-discipline, cooperation, commitment, and competing within a framework of agreed rules. Sport can help channel people’s energy and aggression in a controlled and constructive way. The relationship between PE and sport Physical Education (PE) and sport are closely linked. Whilst Physical Education is a part of the process of education that aims to improve human development and performance through physical activity and Sport is about a range of structured physical activities, the two shared close relationship.  Physical education curriculum places great emphasis on sport and team games, in an effort to raise the importance of these in school life. Both are concerned with physical performance and through them health benefits can be gained; there is the opportunity to push oneself physically and discover strengths and weaknesses about oneself when given challenges or competition. However, there are also differences that set the two apart. Physical education is about the development of the individual, whereas sport is about the development of excellence. Sport is often about winning and success while PE is concerned with preparation for leisure and a healthy lifestyle. Most of our great professional sportsmen and women began their development in physical education classes. – Send questions and queries to: jenelbro119@hotmail.comlast_img read more

‘Chief’ set for long overdue win

first_imgFormer top-class campaigner COMMANDING CHIEF should score a long overdue win in today’s competitive looking overnight allowance race over 1300 metres to be contested by 13 starters at Caymanas Park.COMMANDING CHIEF last won the grade one Prime Minister’s Stakes in a titanic tussle with PERFECT NEIGHBOUR over 2000 metres on Independence Day 2014 (August 6), and although yet to win another race since, has run some useful races in defeat, even though sparingly raced.When he last competed, in open allowance company on January 23 for new trainer Spencer Chung, the eight-year-old gelding by War Marshall out of She Knows Beau ran a decent race behind the progressive filly LONG RUNNING TRAIN and CAMPESINO over a mile, finishing six lengths sixth after racing prominently in second entering the straight.Having worked well in preparation for today’s encounter and stepping down to overnight company in the process, COMMANDING CHIEF has a glorious chance of reliving past glories.MOST ACCOMPLISHEDHe is easily the most accomplished in the field, following big-race wins in the St Leger and Gold Cup when trained by Everal Francis, and with three-time champion jockey Dane Nelson sticking with the ride, the hint should be taken.Still, it won’t be a walk in the park for the veteran campaigner as he faces some very fit opponents in SHINING LIGHT, MIRACLE STAR, RED FLAG, EDISON and HOVER CRAFT, all ideally suited to the distance.The Wayne DaCosta-trained HOVER CRAFT (Omar Walker up) not only won in grade one company last season, but was second to FRANFIELD in last November’s Superstakes, and with 1300 metres not too sharp for him, is a worthy opponent. The same can be said of the Gary Griffiths-trained SHINING LIGHT, a recent winner who will love every inch of this race.However, COMMANDING CHIEF has never had it this easy in years and thus gets the vote.Other firm fancies on the 10-race programme are SUPERTRONICS (knocking at the door) to go one better in the second race; stable-companion BIG GEORGE to repeat in the third; GOLDEN GLORY in the sixth; down-in-class BOLD AVIATOR in race seven; and the speedy OPTIMUS to finally deliver in the eighth race for maiden four-year-olds and up over 1000 metres round.last_img read more

Funding available to complete process (Part 2)

first_imgDear Editor,Has the Guyana Prize helped emerging writers living and writing here in Guyana? Rev. Cecil says, “No”. He argues that local residents do not win because there is no publishing house in Guyana; overseas writers always have an advantage over the locals because they have opportunities for good editing, publishing, and other facilities.We have, during the past week, heard two overseas writers declare that that is a myth.The lack of local publishing houses is indeed a problem, but that has not condemned all local writers to oblivion. Harold Bascom, while living in Guyana, had his first novel, “Apata”, published by Heinemann. Rooplall Monar, from his home in Annandale, had “Backdam People” published in England. Ryhaan Shah published her novels overseas without leaving home; as did a few others, including Moses Nagamootoo (Hendree’s Cure) and Deryck Bernard (Going Home and Other Stories).But what has the Guyana Prize done to assist writers living here?1. The Prize was established for the best of Guyanese writing at home and abroad, and it was for published books only. The Committee listened to comments from the local writing community and decided to assist locally resident writers by allowing them to submit unpublished manuscripts. Self-published works were also admitted.2. This gave them a chance to be in the competition. It motivated several writers to produce, to compete, and to grow as writers.3. It opened the gate for several of them to be shortlisted, and to win the Prize.4. Several local residents won, both with manuscripts and with published books.5. Several workshops were held, conducted by locally resident and visiting writers.6. These workshops were not sufficient, so something more thorough, regular and lasting was needed. This resulted in collaboration with the Department of Culture. Courses in Creative Writing were created and run at the National School of Theatre Arts and Drama. Any of these courses in Fiction, Poetry or Playwriting can be taken free of cost by any emerging or developing writer. Substantial training was thus made available.7. Five student writers were awarded Diplomas in Creative Writing from that programme in 2017. There was a public reading of selected work.8. In collaboration with the Drama School, A National Creative Writing Competition in Poetry, Short Story and One-Act Plays was held for local emerging writers, and nine prizes were awarded in honour of the 50th Independence Anniversary.9. An Annual National Poetry Slam was created for writers and performers of spoken word, performance poetry and hip-hop, in cooperation with the Drama School. Writers were challenged to create compositions on social issues, and patriotic pieces to generate a volume of meaningful compositions in a very popular art form.10. Writers were invited to read their works publicly.11. The Caribbean Press was established, and one of its mandates was to fill the gap and have a good local publishing house available. This press published several local writers, and had started to pay attention to Guyana Prize winners.Here is a Prize established for the highest quality of Guyanese writing that took on things not normally managed by literary prizes. The Guyana Prize, however, took them on, because it saw the need for developmental programmes to help writers living in Guyana to develop to create the excellence in literature demanded by the Prize.Yours faithfully,Al Creighton.last_img read more

Man admits to drunk driving, fined $7500

first_imgMark Bess appeared before Wales Magistrate Rochelle Liverpool and was fined $7500 for driving while being over the prescribed limit for alcohol consumption. The first-time offender admitted that on May 3, 2018 at Independence Street, La Grange, West Bank Demerara (WBD), he drove a private motor car while being in a drunken state. Police found his breath alcohol level to be 125 micrograms. During his appearance at the Wales Magistrate’s Court on Thursday, Bess’s licence was endorsed. He was also given an ultimatum to pay the fine or spend one week in jail.last_img read more

Police destroy 3000 ganja plants in Ituni

first_imgMembers of the Police Narcotics Branch on Wednesday destroyed over 3000The one and half acres of cannabis destroyed by Policecannabis plants with an estimated weight of 400 kilograms during an eradication exercise at Five Miles Backdam, Ituni Trail, Upper Demerara, Region 10 (Upper Demerara-Berbice).Based on reports received, the ranks acted on intelligence and went to the location where they discovered about one and half acres of cannabis being cultivated.The plants measured between two and eight feet in height. A makeshift camp with dry rations, cooking utensils and farming tools was also found and destroyed. No one was arrested as the Police continue their probe.last_img read more

2 ambulances, 100 hospital beds donated to Govt

first_imgTwo ambulances and 100 hospital beds were donated to the Public Health Ministry on Wednesday by Food for the Poor and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).The two ambulances that were handed overA few of the beds which will be dispatched to health institutions across the countryA simple handing-over ceremony was conducted at the Ministry’s Brickdam, Georgetown head office. Public Health Minister Volda Lawrence said the donation is a good example of public-private partnerships.Over the past few months, the Minister said Food for the Poor has been working in Regions Six (East Berbice-Corentyne), Five (Mahaica-Berbice), Eight (Potaro-Siparuni), Three (Essequibo Islands – West Demerara) and Two (Pomeroon-Supenaam) with the Ministry on various initiatives.Meanwhile, the senior manager at Food for the Poor, Jimeel Davis, reiterated the agency’s commitment to assisting those in need.“This is the third container in the last 12 months (we are donating). It shows our commitment to the Ministry of (Public) Health in helping this nation to become better (and) healthier,” he said.The donation of the beds, he added, came as a result of a request from the Ministry. It was noted that the beds will be dispatched to Regions One (Barima-Waini) and Eight, along with a few other hinterland areas.On the other hand, Minister Lawrence noted that the ambulances, PXX 9370 and PXX 9371, will serve Regions Three and Four. The ambulances cost $15.5 million each.last_img read more

JDA Kings reign supreme in Fort St. John

first_imgAlexander also spoke about the performance of the two young Trackers, Ricky Bateman and Thomas Webster, saying he liked what he saw in the two call-ups.”They performed well; it wasn’t any reason of theirs we lost the game. You could tell that they hadn’t had a lot of experience with the older guys but they held their own pretty good. A little bit of comments and few more games and they could play here quite easily.”The challenging schedule continues for the Huskies, as their next task will be a two-game series at home versus the league’s second place team, the North Peace Navigators, which will be played Saturday evening and Sunday afternoon. Right off the bat, there was a different look to the Huskies squad, as two affiliate players, Ricky Bateman and Thomas Webster, were called up from the NE B.C. and Yukon District Trackers to help fill out the team’s short bench.It was a great start to an extremely physical game between two familiar foes, as Grande Prairie hosted the Huskies this past Saturday, when Fort St. John lost a close road game, 2-1.Bodies began to fly as soon as the puck dropped, with each team refusing to shy away from the rough stuff, throwing big hits at every opportunity. The JDA Kings struck first, opening the scoring to start the first period. However, rather than get discouraged, the Huskies responded, as Robbie Sidhu scored his 14 goal of the season on a beautiful end-to-end rush, scoring far short side on a perfectly placed shot.- Advertisement -With the game tied at ones, Grande Prairie scored on the power play to reclaim the one-goal lead, but the see-saw battle continued as Jayton Wieler whacked in a rebound moments later, re-tying the game at two all.The first period ended with Grande Prairie leading, as with six minutes left in the opening frame, the JDA Kings scored their third goal of the period, concluding the first with the visitors leading 3-2.The second period belonged to Huskies rookie Cayle Bell, who showed some serious skill, scoring the game-tying goal on a beautiful through-the-legs move on a JDA Kings defender and roofing the puck high blocker. Bell wasn’t done there, as the speedy forward scored on the power-play, getting the puck in tight to the Grande Prairie net, shooting the puck high short-side, providing the Huskies a 4-3 lead, their first lead of the game.Advertisement Unfortunately, the go-ahead goal seemed to light a fire under the skates of the JDA Kings, who immediately took the puck down the ice with some crisp puck movement and potted the game-tying goal, concluding the period with the scoreboard reading 4-4.The tale of the tough third reared its ugly head once again Tuesday evening, as Grande Prairie hit the ice determined in the final period, scoring four goals compared to just one by Huskies’ forward Jamie Watson, producing the final score of 8-5.Following the disappointing home loss, head coach Gary Alexander said Tuesday’s tale is an all too familiar one this year.”We just can’t seem to sustain the effort that we put in. I don’t think we actually changed our effort a whole lot more in the third period. We have to up it instead of play the same game, because the other teams seem to be able to shift a gear and get up there, and we just haven’t been able to do that. It’s something we’ve tried every angle to work on but nothing seems to be accomplishing anything at the moment.”Advertisementlast_img read more

Leyva, offense power Toros to win

first_imgMichael Craig went 3 for 5 with two doubles, a home run and four RBI to help spark the Toro offense. Houston Hernandez went 4 for 4 with a double, two RBI and four runs scored. Other contributors included Dustin Hicks (double, three RBI), Cody Puckett (2 for 4, double, three runs), Chris Hunter (3 for 4, double, two runs, RBI), Scott Moore (3 for 5, double, run, RBI) and Jerit Coleman (2 for 4, double, two runs, RBI). The Master’s College 9, Biola 8 David Leyva allowed one run on four hits over seven innings, leading the Cal State Dominguez Hills baseball team to a 14-1 victory over Southern Utah in a nonconference game at CSDH. Leyva walked one and struck out six in improving to 1-1. James Dodson and Buddy McNeill each pitched an inning in relief to wrap up the victory. Nick Dietzen hit a home run and double and drove in five runs for the visiting Eagles (4-4, 1-3), but they fell in a Golden State Athletic Conference game. Biola led 8-6 after 7 1/2 innings before The Master’s (5-6, 2-2) got a run in the last of the eighth and two in the ninth to win. Steve Shaver had two homers and a double for the winners and Pete Goeman had three hits. Phil Crane (2-0) came on in relief to earn the win for The Master’s. center_img 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Hemp hype

first_imgHEMP may be a first cousin to marijuana, but that’s no reason to justify the continued ban on the useful plant. Indeed, the association with the illegal weed has unfairly tainted hemp from being grown and harvested. That’s why the bill by Sen. Tom McClintock, R-Thousand Oaks, to legalize the farming of this durable and sustainable crop ought to be supported by his colleagues. Long a cause for hippie types, hemp has gained popularity as a lucrative crop for fiber. There was never a very strong reason to ban hemp, other than that the plant looked a lot like marijuana. At a time when we need renewable resources, there’s even less reason. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Santa Clarita men indicted

first_imgAn informant told investigators that he believes that L&L officials negotiated with Monem for the state to pay higher prices than L&L might have received from other buyers. The Monems, Lawrence and Roth also formed a company named Laromo LLC, through which they bought investment properties in Oregon, according to Salisbury’s investigation.160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! Roth, Levin and Lawrence were named in a January search warrant affidavit that described the alleged plot and led to the seizure of cash from the Monems’ home, business account and safe deposit box, according to federal court records. Bribery carries a maximum 10-year sentence. The tax fraud charge, which alleges that the men wrote off the bribes as a legitimate business expense, carries a maximum three-year sentence. During his time with the state, Monem won praise for using special procurement rules to aggressively pursue distressed and bulk foods on the spot market. The savings have helped Oregon regularly rank among the lowest in the nation for per-inmate food costs. But Monem had also been the target of inmate complaints about green bologna, moldy hamburger and other culinary problems. The Oregon Department of Corrections surveyed the state’s prison inmates about the food in 2005, after food overtook health care as the issue generating the most complaints. According to an affidavit by IRS Special Agent Robert Salisbury, informants said L&L paid 20 percent of its profits to Monem and got him to purchase goods it had trouble selling elsewhere. EUGENE, Ore. – Three businessmen – two of them from Santa Clarita – have been indicted in federal court on charges that they bribed a former state Department of Corrections official into taking food they had trouble selling elsewhere. Charged with bribery and tax fraud in Eugene on Monday were Michael Levin and William Lawrence of Santa Clarita, along with Howard Roth of Los Angeles. The men are key figures in Levin & Lawrence Inc., also known as L&L Inc., headquartered on Centre Pointe Parkway in Saugus. Charges have not been filed against Farhad “Fred” Monem, the food services director suspected by authorities of accepting the bribes. Federal officials believe Monem and his wife, Karen Monem, took at least $650,000 from a number of food wholesalers to buy discounted food for use in the state’s prisons. Monem was fired last month from his state job. last_img read more