Fan Milk Limited (FML.gh) listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange under the Food sector has released it’s 2007 interim results for the first quarter.For more information about Fan Milk Limited (FML.gh) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Fan Milk Limited (FML.gh) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Fan Milk Limited (FML.gh) 2007 interim results for the first quarter.Company ProfileFan Milk Limited manufactures and markets dairy products and fruit drinks in Ghana. The company produces a range of frozen strawberry yoghurts, chocolates, ice cream, snacks, ice lollies and citrus drinks under the following brand names; FanYogo, FanChoco, FanIce, FanDango and FanPop. Fan Milk Limited manages a network of independent distributors and agents. Formerly known as Ghana Milk Company Limited, the company changed its name to Fan Milk Limited in 1962. The company is a subsidiary of Fan Milk International A/S with headquarters in Acca, Ghana. Fan Milk Limited is listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange
FTSE 100 shares to buy: this stock is thriving despite the pandemic Jabran Khan has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares FREE REPORT: Why this £5 stock could be set to surge Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Jabran Khan | Tuesday, 23rd March, 2021 | More on: SKG FTSE 100 stock Smurfit Kappa (LSE:SKG) is a provider of paper-based packaging solutions. It currently has the advantage of supplying the needs of e-commerce, which has boomed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Retail platforms experienced an unprecedented increase in global traffic between January 2019 and June 2020. Levels even passed holiday season peaks. Retail websites generated almost 22bn visits in June 2020 alone. 5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…FTSE 100 opportunityI believe the pandemic has changed the way we shop forever. Many firms have invested lots of money into e-commerce and the infrastructure to ensure it operates effectively. These companies need sustainable and cutting-edge packaging solutions. This is where Smurfit Kappa comes in.Between the beginning and end of March 2020, Smurfit lost close to 30% of its share price value. At its lowest point, shares could be picked up for 2,078p per share. Since that time, however, it has experienced a steady increase and is currently trading for over 3,500p per share, which has surpassed pre-crash levels. This is also a five-year high. I believe Smurfit presents a good FTSE 100 opportunity and may experience a further rise too.Positive full-year resultsLast month Smurfit confirmed final results for the year ending 31 December 2020. There were some key positive takeaways in my opinion. Results highlighted excellent performance, as well as future potential in my eyes.Smurfit’s revenue increased by 6% compared to 2019 results. As a result of this, profit before income tax rose by 10% compared to 2019. It also reported record free cash flow of €675m which is a 23% increase. It also managed to reduce net debt by a whopping 32%. SKG was probably one of the few FTSE 100 firms to meet all dividend commitments in 2020. Based on excellent performance it’s board recommended an increase in the final dividend by 8% to 87.4 cents per share.Group CEO Tony Smurfit’s comments about results and particularly the future of the industry fill me with confidence about a stock I was already bullish about. He said, “Driven by strong secular trends such as e-commerce and sustainability, the outlook for our industry is increasingly positive.”Risk and rewardLike with any FTSE 100 stock, there are risks to consider carefully before I invest my hard-earned cash. It is clear to see Smurfit has benefited from the pandemic. However, despite an increase in revenue and profit, this could have been substantially more. FY results show costs and input have risen substantially. My concern here is that as shopping habits divert towards online platforms further, costs may increase too, essentially affecting the bottom line of firms like Smurfit Kappa.In addition to rising costs, there is the chance that shoppers are itching to get out and shop in the traditional manner. The easing of restrictions may mean shoppers hit the high street and Smurfit may not experience such a demand for its services like in 2020.Overall, I am bullish about Smurfit Kappa and view it as a FTSE 100 opportunity. It is a firm which has a niche offering for the e-commerce sector. Furthermore, it has a large enough footprint and presence to possess a healthy market share in the packaging industry. I will continue to monitor financials and developments as restrictions ease, however.Away from the FTSE 100, I have recently been looking at penny stocks for my ISA before the 5 April deadline. Enter Your Email Address Image source: Getty Images Are you on the lookout for UK growth stocks?If so, get this FREE no-strings report now.While it’s available: you’ll discover what we think is a top growth stock for the decade ahead.And the performance of this company really is stunning.In 2019, it returned £150million to shareholders through buybacks and dividends.We believe its financial position is about as solid as anything we’ve seen.Since 2016, annual revenues increased 31%In March 2020, one of its senior directors LOADED UP on 25,000 shares – a position worth £90,259Operating cash flow is up 47%. (Even its operating margins are rising every year!)Quite simply, we believe it’s a fantastic Foolish growth pick.What’s more, it deserves your attention today.So please don’t wait another moment. Get the full details on this £5 stock now – while your report is free. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. See all posts by Jabran Khan
Cyprus Save this picture!© Creative Photo Room+ 12 Share Architects: Vardastudio Architects and Designers Year Completion year of this architecture project Year: Andri & Yiorgos Residence / Vardastudio Architects and Designers CopyHouses•Chloraka, Cyprus ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/440008/andri-and-yiorgos-residence-vardastudio-architects-and-designers Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/440008/andri-and-yiorgos-residence-vardastudio-architects-and-designers Clipboard ArchDaily Projects Year: Manufacturers: Rabel Aluminium SystemsSave this picture!© Creative Photo RoomRecommended ProductsDoorsGorter HatchesRoof Hatch – RHT AluminiumEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System – LINEADoorsECLISSESliding Pocket Door – ECLISSE LuceDoorsRabel Aluminium SystemsMinimal Sliding Door – Rabel 62 Slim Super ThermalText description provided by the architects. Formally the house is composed as two volumes on two levels, externally distinguished by materials, whilst coming together internally through a concise interior design that integrates the living spaces. Save this picture!© Creative Photo RoomThe corten steel clad upper floor sits atop the extraordinarily smooth fairface concrete ground floor, and opens up to the rear creating a sheltered L-shaped veranda. Save this picture!© Creative Photo RoomAt ground floor the living area also opens up to a rear deck and a garden beyond. Material finishes and edges were detailed carefully to tie together with the formal concept and create a building that appears inevitable and effortlessly designed. Save this picture!First Floor PlanProject gallerySee allShow lessGiveaway: Win A Copy of ‘Richard Meier & Partners Complete Works’Architecture News100 Urban Trends: A Glossary of IdeasArchitecture News Share “COPY” “COPY” Andri & Yiorgos Residence / Vardastudio Architects and DesignersSave this projectSaveAndri & Yiorgos Residence / Vardastudio Architects and Designers 2013 photographs: Creative Photo RoomPhotographs: Creative Photo Room Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project 2013 Houses Photographs CopyAbout this officeVardastudio Architects and DesignersOfficeFollowProductsSteelConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesChlorakaHousesCyprusPublished on October 22, 2013Cite: “Andri & Yiorgos Residence / Vardastudio Architects and Designers” 22 Oct 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Year: ArchDaily Houses Switzerland Photographs House B / e2a ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/780567/house-b-e2a Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/780567/house-b-e2a Clipboard Architects: e2a Year Completion year of this architecture project CopyAbout this officeE2AOfficeFollowProductConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesStäfaSwitzerlandPublished on January 20, 2016Cite: “House B / e2a” 20 Jan 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Facebook Braden Rouxhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/braden-roux/ Facebook ReddIt Previous articleWhat’s included in first-year dorm roomsNext articleQuarterback race still open heading into fall camp Braden Roux RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR World Oceans Day shines spotlight on marine plastic pollution printOn Tuesday, July 9, the 60 students attended a ‘Welcome Week’ seminar that explained to them what the curriculum would be like. The students also received their identification cards the same day. Photo by Cristian ArguetaSoto.In preparation for Monday’s first day of classes, the 60 students in the new joint medical school between TCU and the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) arrived on campus July 8 for a welcome week of orientation. During their welcome week, students of the nation’s newest medical school met faculty, staff and participate in orientation activities. The two universities, who have been working since July of 2015 to start a school of medicine, have a primary goal to train physicians to be “empathetic scholars” who excel at one-on-one communication as well as new technologies and medical science. In a press release, Stuart D. Flynn, M.D. M.P.H, the dean of the TCU and UNTHSC School of Medicine said that this training will teach the students to “lead by example in a healthcare industry that needs their skills and leadership.”Evonne Kaplan-Liss, M.D., the assistant dean of narrative reflection and patient communication, said to be an empathetic scholar means students will be trained to be “excellent doctors who are lifelong learners and communicate with compassion.”To do so, the school developed a cross-department curriculum that contains journalism and theatre tactics along with their science courses. A significant piece of the curriculum is known as “The Compassionate Process,” which is a repeatable process that will be used to “connect and disconnect when needed,” said Dr. Kaplan-Liss. The team that developed “The Compassionate Process” is made up of a group of people who come from many different backgrounds, including journalism, theatre and English. “This is a unique team that medical schools don’t have to teach this very interdisciplinary, well-rounded topic,” Kaplan-Liss said. Val Lantz-Gefroh, the artistic director of the new school of medicine, said they modified common theater processes like improvisational theater for the medical field for this training. These exercises will be used to teach students to be able to listen, adapt and respond to patients, then move to the next patient and do it all over again. “To have the ability to let go of one thing and go into another fresh as if it were the first time requires some technique,” Lantz-Gefroh said.Students at the School of Medicine’s Welcome Week seminar got to know each other while they waited for their next speaker to present. Photo by Cristian ArguetaSoto.Lantz-Gefroh also said that while theatre and journalism seem to be completely different fields at surface level, they are both about the story at the core. Journalists find the story while actors tell the story. The curriculum team believes to be able to do both allows a doctor to find a story, then be able to respond and connect with a patient. “Our entire school is very multidisciplinary, which allows us to flip the entire idea of education on its head, and making people collaborate in ways that I’ve never seen before,” Val Lantz-Gefroh said. Although The TCU and UNTHSC School of Medicine is just beginning, the inaugural class was held to high standards, not only with academics but with character as well. The average GPA for the pilot class is 3.62, as well as an average score of 508 on the MCAT, which is above the national average of 500. Fifty-eight percent of the inaugural class self-identifies to belong to one or more of the three domains defined by the school, which are race/ethnicity, orientation, and financial background. Photo by Cristian ArguetaSoto.“We had no magic number, no intentional outcome, but intentional efforts to bring in a diverse, but also qualified class,” said Tara Cunningham, associate dean of admissions and student diversity at the TCU and UNTHSC School of Medicine. “Academics is the entry, but once you pass that threshold, academics kind of fades to the background, we put more attention on the personal and professional readiness.”The admissions process includes an audio recorded essay that allows the “admissions team to dive into those personal characteristics. Sixty students is a small class, but because of the immense resources used to put students into a year-long experience different from other medical schools we cannot grow beyond 60 without limiting students from our clinical experiences,” Cunningham said. Shanice Cox, a Notre Dame graduate and a member of the inaugural class at the medical school, has an interest in gynecology. Cox said she chose dual school between TCU and UNTHSC because of “the small but diverse class size.”“I also wanted to be in a place that I could meet so many different patient populations, as well as the unique feeling the faculty that recruited me and TCU gave me,” Cox said. “We also have a high tech anatomy lab that has everything on a screen kind of like a hologram, but I also think doing clerkships your first year is really cool and only one of the things this school does that is unlike any other.”The School of Medicine students were introduced one-by-one at the inaugural pep rally on July 11. Photo by Cristian ArguetaSotoThe TCU and UNTHSC School of Medicine held an inaugural pep rally on July 11. The celebration consisted of a drum line, music and introduction of the 60 students planning to attend the School of Medicine. Students will begin their studies Monday, July 15. For more information on the medical school, click here. Linkedin + posts Twitter Welcome TCU Class of 2025 TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history Braden Rouxhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/braden-roux/ Linkedin Twitter Quarterback race still open heading into fall camp ReddIt Braden Rouxhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/braden-roux/ A host of rookie Horned Frogs find roles in the NFL Braden Roux TCU has isolation rooms for students with COVID-19
Help by sharing this information July 25, 2011 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Freelance journalist Hanadi Zahlout disappeared Freelance journalist Hanadi Zahlout disappeared. Organisation News RSF_en
Joseph Cullen Rem Myers 32 UBS Advisors in New England Named to the Forbes/SHOOK Best-in-State Wealth Advisors List Tom Wood Previous articleIn Israel and beyond, virus vaccines bring political powerNext articleJuniper Research: Smart Traffic Management to Significantly Reduce Congestion and Emissions; Saving Cities $277 Billion by 2025 Digital AIM Web Support Jonathan Galli Pinterest Matthew Bechtel Jeffrey Swett Donald W. Tynion II, WhatsApp Facebook Max Peckler John Hamilton Tim Connolly By Digital AIM Web Support – February 22, 2021 Paul Makris James Fair Jim Taylor William Tagerman Jessica Guo BOSTON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 22, 2021– UBS Wealth Management USA announced today that 32 Financial Advisors in the firm’s Greater New England Market have been named to the Forbes/SHOOK Research Best-In-State Wealth Advisors list for 2021. This year’s list is comprised of over 5,000 Advisors across the country, managing more than $6 trillion in client assets. Each advisor is chosen based on an algorithm of qualitative and quantitative measures including, phone and in-person interviews, compliance records, and revenue generated for their firms. This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005160/en/ (Photo: Business Wire) “I’m proud to see so many UBS advisors named to this year’s list,” said James Ducey, Greater New England Market Head at UBS Wealth Management USA. “It’s been a challenging year where we’ve been forced to adapt to new and different ways of connecting to clients and it’s rewarding to see their dedication recognized.” UBS advisors in Greater New England named to 2021’s list are: Sam Sinclair Jessica Anderson Gary Ghigliotti Daniel Lewin For the full list and more visit: https://www.forbes.com/best-in-state-wealth-advisors/#120fc5b4291d. Notes to Editors About UBS Global Wealth Management As the world’s largest wealth manager, UBS Global Wealth Management provides comprehensive advice, solutions and services to wealthy families and individuals around the world. Clients who work with UBS benefit from a fully integrated set of wealth management capabilities and expertise, including wealth planning, investment management, capital markets, banking, lending and institutional and corporate financial advice. About UBS UBS provides financial advice and solutions to wealthy, institutional and corporate clients worldwide, as well as private clients in Switzerland. UBS’s strategy is centered on our leading global wealth management business and our premier universal bank in Switzerland, enhanced by Asset Management and the Investment Bank. The bank focuses on businesses that have a strong competitive position in their targeted markets, are capital efficient, and have an attractive long-term structural growth or profitability outlook. UBS is present in all major financial centers worldwide. It has offices in more than 50 regions and locations, with about 30% of its employees working in the Americas, 31% in Switzerland, 19% in the rest of Europe, the Middle East and Africa and 20% in Asia Pacific. UBS Group AG employs over 68,000 people around the world. Its shares are listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). © UBS 2021. All rights reserved. The key symbol and UBS are among the registered and unregistered trademarks of UBS. Neither UBS Financial Services Inc. or its employees pay a fee in exchange for these ratings. Past performance is not an indication of future results. View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005160/en/ CONTACT: Kearney Dewing Prosek Partners 857-302-3647 https://www.ubs.com KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA MASSACHUSETTS INDUSTRY KEYWORD: BANKING PROFESSIONAL SERVICES FINANCE SOURCE: UBS Wealth Management USA Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/22/2021 09:05 AM/DISC: 02/22/2021 09:05 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210222005160/enCopyright Business Wire 2021.32 UBS Advisors in New England Named to the Forbes/SHOOK Best-in-State Wealth Advisors List Alexander Martinelli WhatsApp Michael Winn Sean Dillon Steven Scher Pinterest Robert Williams Twitter TAGS Camille Valentine Brian Wells Sandy Manzella Bob Ryan David Uva Dan Gleason Local NewsBusiness Twitter Erik Wheeler Facebook Jose Rodriguez
BusinessRay Perryman WhatsApp WhatsApp Previous articleELAM: Texas bounces backNext articleBBB tip: Avoid moving scams this National Moving Month M. Ray Perryman Twitter Facebook Twitter Facebook Ray Perryman is the head of The Perryman Group and serves as a distinguished professor at the International Institute for Advanced Studies. Results from the 2020 Census are beginning to surface. These statistics are far more than a matter of interest. Not only is the number of representatives in the U.S. House tied to the count, but also funds from a variety of federal programs. Trends are also crucial to planning and decision-making across a broad spectrum. While the data is still being compiled and it will be a while before we know the full story (and the inevitable lawsuits that are often settled by adding more people), some patterns are emerging.Over the 10-year span, the population of the United States grew from 308.7 million to 331.4 million, representing a 7.4 percent increase (the lowest rate since the 1930s and the second lowest ever). Texas saw the largest change by a wide margin, adding about 4.0 million residents to top 29.1 million in 2020. Florida was next (up 2.7 million), followed by California (nearly 2.3 million) and Georgia (1.0 million). Three states actually saw population shrink over the decade (West Virginia, Illinois, and Mississippi).In terms of growth rates (rather than absolute increases), Utah and Idaho were the top two, with gains of 18.4 percent and 17.3 percent for the decade, while Texas was third with 15.9 percent. For a state with such a large base to also rank near the top in percentage change is quite remarkable. By contrast, the most populous state, California, ranked 24 with a 6.1 percent rate of increase.Because of the increase, Texas will gain two additional representatives in Congress. Several other states will add one (Colorado, Florida, Montana, North Carolina, and Oregon), while others lose one (California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia).Major categories of federal funding tied to the Census include health care, housing, food and nutrition, education and job training, infrastructure, and social and protective services. All of these areas are critical to ongoing economic expansion and quality of life. Moreover, funding for such initiatives fosters “downstream” effects. For example, nutrition, education, social services, health care, and other programs can enhance productivity and efficiency, improve overall health (further enhancing productivity), and decrease stress on social service systems. The new data will help ensure Texas receives a significant share of federal funds, although the decision by the state government to provide limited support for the effort likely resulted in an undercount (and potentially loss of a third new Representative).Some of the variation in growth rates across the nation is driven by demographic patterns and rates of natural increase. Another key factor is economic expansion and job opportunities, leading to in-migration. Adding four million new Texans indicates that the state remains a great place to live and work. Let’s keep it that way! Stay safe! Pinterest TAGSeconomyenergygasmarketsoilRay Perryman Pinterest By M. Ray Perryman – May 16, 2021 THE ECONOMIST: The count
Need for issues with Mica redress scheme to be addressed raised in Seanad also Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published Google+ Pinterest Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest WhatsApp Newsx Adverts WhatsApp Facebook Google+ Twitter Minister McConalogue says he is working to improve fishing quota LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week There are fears that 19 jobs are to go at Spanboard in Coleraine, after the chipboard manufacturer announced it’s consulting with workers.Local MLA John Dallat says it’s just over three years since 90 employees got their P45s and now the gates are likely to close on the remaining few.He says Coleraine and the wider East Derry area have experienced economic devastation……[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/jdall530.mp3[/podcast] Previous articleNephew of woman murdered 70 years ago “knows who main suspect is”Next articleSoccer – Packie Bonner Looks Forward To Euro 2012 News Highland Twitter By News Highland – June 7, 2012 19 jobs set to go in Coleraine 70% of Cllrs nationwide threatened, harassed and intimidated over past 3 years – Report
Top StoriesSection 69A IT Act, Shreya Singhal Judgment And Blocking Of 59 Apps Ashok Kini6 July 2020 2:07 AMShare This – xWhile making public its decision to block 59 mobile apps, mostly Chinese, including Tik Tok, Cam Scanner, Xender etc, the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology has mainly referred to its powers under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, read with the relevant provisions of the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginWhile making public its decision to block 59 mobile apps, mostly Chinese, including Tik Tok, Cam Scanner, Xender etc, the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology has mainly referred to its powers under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, read with the relevant provisions of the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules, 2009, to block these apps, citing threat to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of state and public order.The Ministry has taken this decision in view of information available that these applications are engaged in activities which is prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of state and public order. It has also taken into account the recommendation made by the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre, Ministry of Home Affairs for ‘blocking these malicious apps’. It further states that the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-IN) has also received many representations from citizens regarding security of data and breach of privacy impacting upon public order issues. Finally, it justifies its decision by stating that ‘there has been a strong chorus in the public space to take strict action against Apps that harm India’s sovereignty as well as the privacy of our citizens.’It is pertinent to note that the Government has only stated through PIB that it has decided to block these applications. Any order made in this regard, if any, is not yet made public. However, the Tik Tok management has already confirmed that the Government of India has issued an “interim order” for the blocking of 59 apps. They stated that they are in the process of complying with it and that they have been invited to meet with concerned government stakeholders for an opportunity to respond and submit clarifications.Meanwhile, the Centre’s Department of Telecom (DoT) has reportedly issued a direction to all telecom and internet service providers to immediately block access to all 59 mobile apps banned by the government. Service providers have been asked to immediately comply with the orders and submit compliance reports to the DoT, the reports said quoting sources from Telecom Department.This piece intends to examine the provisions of Information Technology Act and Rules framed under it, which has been invoked by the Government to decide to block 59 mobile applications. Section 69A of Information Technology Act The Section 69A, introduced vide an Amendment Act of 2009 with effect from 27.10.2009, deals with the power to issue directions for blocking for public access of any information through any computer resource. The provision 69A (1) reads as follows: Where the Central Government or any of its officers specially authorised by it in this behalf is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient so to do, in the interest of sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India, security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognizable offence relating to above, it may subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), for reasons to be recorded in writing, by order, direct any agency of the Government or intermediary to block for access by the public or cause to be blocked for access by the public any information generated, transmitted, received, stored or hosted in any computer resource. The intermediary who fails to comply with the direction issued under the above sub section shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine. Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking for Access of Information by Public) Rules, 2009 regulates the procedure in this regard.SC Upheld Validity Of Section 69A and Rules In Shreya Singhal Judgment Apparently, the challenge against this Section 69A was also considered by the Supreme Court in its landmark decision in Shreya Singhal vs. Union of India case. The judgment, delivered by bench comprising Justice J. Chelameswar and Justice R.F. Nariman, had struck down Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, in its entirety, for being violative of Fundamental Rights under Article 19(1)(a) and not saved under Article 19(2).The main grounds of challenge against Section 69A were (1) There is no pre-decisional hearing afforded by the Rules particularly to the “originator” of information, which is defined under Section 2(za) of the Act to mean a person who sends, generates, stores or transmits any electronic message; or causes any electronic message to be sent, generated, stored or transmitted to any other person. (2) Procedural safeguards such as which are provided under Section 95 and 96 of the Code of Criminal Procedure are not available here. (3) The confidentiality provision affects the fundamental rights. While dealing with these contention, the Court observed that that Section 69A unlike Section 66A is a narrowly drawn provision with several safeguards. It observed thus: First and foremost, blocking can only be resorted to where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary so to do. Secondly, such necessity is relatable only to some of the subjects set out in Article 19(2). Thirdly, reasons have to be recorded in writing in such blocking order so that they may be assailed in a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution. Referring to the Rules, the Court further observed: The Rules further provide for a hearing before the Committee set up – which Committee then looks into whether or not it is necessary to block such information. It is only when the Committee finds that there is such a necessity that a blocking order is made. It is also clear from an examination of Rule 8 that it is not merely the intermediary who may be heard. If the “person” i.e. the originator is identified he is also to be heard before a blocking order is passed. Above all, it is only after these procedural safeguards are met that blocking orders are made and in case there is a certified copy of a court order, only then can such blocking order also be made. It is only an intermediary who finally fails to comply with the directions issued who is punishable under sub-section (3) of Section 69A. The Court also held that merely because certain additional safeguards such as those found in Section 95 and 96 CrPC are not available, it does not make the Rules constitutionally infirm. Thus the validity of the Section 69A and the Rules made thereunder was upheld by the Supreme Court. Interim Blocking OrderThe Supreme Court had upheld the validity of the Section 69A and Rules taking note of the fact that there are sufficient safeguards which are to be met before blocking orders are made. In the present case, the Government seems to have issued an ‘interim order’ blocking the applications even before affording an opportunity of hearing to them. But, is the Government empowered to do so when the Supreme Court has already held that procedural safeguards including affording of opportunity of hearing are to be met before blocking orders are made? This takes us to Rule 9 of the IT (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules which deals with blocking of information in cases of emergency. Notwithstanding anything contained in rules 7 and 8, the Designated Officer, in any case of emergency nature, for which no delay is acceptable, shall examine the request and printed sample information and consider whether the request is within the scope of sub-section (1) of section 69A of the Act and it is necessary or expedient and justifiable to block such information or part thereof and submit the request with specific recommendations in writing to Secretary, Department of Information Technology.In a case of emergency nature, the Secretary, Department of Information Technology may, if he is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient and justifiable for blocking for public access of any information or part thereof through any computer resource and after recording reasons in writing, as an interim measure issue such directions as he may consider necessary to such identified or identifiable persons or intermediary in control of such computer resource hosting such information or part thereof without giving him an opportunity of hearing.The Designated Officer, at the earliest but not later than 48 hours of issue of direction under sub-rule (2), shall bring the request before the committee referred to in rule 7 for its consideration and recommendation.On receipt of recommendations of committee, Secretary, Department of Information Technology, shall pass the final order as regard to approval of such request and in case the request for blocking is not approved by the Secretary, Department of Information Technology in his final order, the interim direction issued under sub-rule (2) shall be revoked and the person or intermediary in control of such information shall be accordingly directed to unblock the information for public access.So the Rule mandates the Designated Officer, to bring the request of blocking before for its consideration and recommendation. This has to be done at the earliest but not later than 48 hours of issue of interim direction. The committee consists of the Designated Officer as its chairperson and representatives, not below the rank of Joint Secretary in Ministries of Law and Justice, Home Affairs, Information and Broadcasting and the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team.The Way Ahead For Blocked AppsRule 7 deals with the procedure that is to be followed by the Committee while considering blocking requests. But the same does not provide any time limit for ‘consideration’ by the committee in case the emergency powers are invoked. So once the application is blocked invoking emergency powers, it may have to wait for the consideration and recommendation by the Committee. The procedure is as follows:(1) On receipt of request under rule 6, the Designated Officer shall make all reasonable efforts to identify the person or intermediary who has hosted the information or part thereof as well as the computer resource on which such information or part thereof is being hosted and where he is able to identify such person or intermediary and the computer resource hosting the information or part thereof which have been requested to be blocked for public access, he shall issue a notice by way of letters or fax pr e-mail signed with electronic signatures to such person or intermediary in control of such computer resource to appear and submit their reply and clarifications if any, before the committee referred to in rule 7, at a specified date and time, which shall not be less than forty-eight hours from the time of receipt of such notice by such person or intermediary.(2) In case of non-appearance of such person or intermediary, who has been served with the notice under sub-rule (1), before the committee on such specified date and time the committee shall give specific recommendation in writing with respect to the request received from the Nodal Officer, based on the Information available with the committee. (3) In case, such a person or intermediary, who has been served with the notice under sub-rule (1), is a foreign entity or body corporate as identified by the Designated Officer, notice shall be sent by way of letters or fax pr e-mail signed with electronic signatures to such foreign entity or body corporate and any such foreign entity or body corporate shall respond to such a notice within the time specified therein, failing which the committee shall given specific recommendation in writing with respect to the request received from the Nodal Officer, based on the information available with the committee. (4) The committee referred to in rule 7 shall examine the request and printed sample information and consider whether the request is covered within the scope of sub-section (1) of section 69A of the Act and that it is justifiable to block such information or part thereof and shall give specific recommendation in writing with respect to the request received from the Nodal Officer. (5) The Designated Officer shall submit the recommendation of the committee, in respect of the request for blocking of information alongwith the details sent by the Nodal Officer to the Secretary in the department of Information Technology under Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Government of India (hereinafter referred to as the “Secretary, Department of Information Technology”). (6) The Designated Officer, on approval of the request by the Secretary, Department of Information Technology, shall direct any agency of the Goverment or the intermediary to block the offending information generated, transmitted, received, stored or hosted in their computer resource for public access within the time limit specified in the direction: Provided that in case the request of the Nodal Officer is not approved by the Secretary, Department of Information Technology, the Designated Officer shall convey the same to such Nodal Officer. To put it briefly, the applications that are blocked by an interim order, will be given an opportunity to present their version before the Committee. The Committee will consider whether it is justifiable to block them and will give specific recommendation in writing. On receipt of recommendations of committee, Secretary, Department of Information Technology, will pass the final order as regard to approval of such request. In case the request for blocking is not approved by the Secretary, Department of Information Technology in his final order, the ‘interim blocking direction’ will be revoked. Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story